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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 416235, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/416235
Review Article

Pulmonary Protection Strategies in Cardiac Surgery: Are We Making Any Progress?

1Bristol Heart Institute, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Upper Maudlin Street, Bristol BS2 8HW, UK
2Cardiac Surgery, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0HS, UK

Received 5 February 2015; Accepted 12 March 2015

Academic Editor: Gianfranco Pintus

Copyright © 2015 Emad Al Jaaly et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Pulmonary dysfunction is a common complication of cardiac surgery. The mechanisms involved in the development of pulmonary dysfunction are multifactorial and can be related to the activation of inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways. Clinical manifestation varies from mild atelectasis to severe respiratory failure. Managing pulmonary dysfunction postcardiac surgery is a multistep process that starts before surgery and continues during both the operative and postoperative phases. Different pulmonary protection strategies have evolved over the years; however, the wide acceptance and clinical application of such techniques remain hindered by the poor level of evidence or the sample size of the studies. A better understanding of available modalities and/or combinations can result in the development of customised strategies for the different cohorts of patients with the potential to hence maximise patients and institutes benefits.