Figure 1: Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix is mainly mediated by integrins. Integrins are associated with cell-to-cell and cell-to-extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion events via ECM binding and/or cell adhesion molecules. Loss of integrin attachment induces anoikis, which leads to cell death. The focal adhesion complex, which includes focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Src, talin, vinculin, paxillin, and integrin-linked kinase (ILK), promotes the strong adhesion and cell survival/growth of the transplanted stem cells by inhibiting anoikis signaling.