Table 1: Potential strategies for enhancing MSC survival and adhesion.

TypesRelated factorsFunctionReference

Ex vivo genetic modification
AntiapoptosisTLR4Improved survival of TLR4 knockout murine MSCs[85, 86]
AKTReduced apoptosis of rat MSCs[87]
Hsp-20/Hsp-27Enhanced survival of rat MSCs [88, 89]
Bcl-2Inhibited cell death of rat MSCs[90]
SurvivinEnhanced survival of rat MSCs[91, 92]
CCR1/CXCR2Improved survival of mouse MSCs[94]
Cell adhesion PAI-1Enhanced survival and adhesion of PAI-1 knockout mouse MSCs[95]
tTGEnhanced cell attachment of rat MSCs[96, 97]
ILKEnhanced cell survival and adhesion of rat MSCs[98, 99]
PretreatmentIGF-1Elevated connexin-43 and enhanced prosurvival signals and cardiomyogenic differentiation of mouse MSCs[69]
SDF-1Suppressed apoptosis, enhanced survival, proliferation, and engraftment of rat MSCs[70]
Hsp-70Protected against hypoxia-induced apoptosis of rat MSCs[71]
PRCREnhanced survival, proliferation, and differentiation of rat MSCs[7779]
PMAIncreased adhesion of rat MSCs[80]
AtorvastatinImproved survival of swine MSCs[82]
MelatoninIncreased survival of rat MSCs[83]
MicroRNA-1Enhanced survival and cardiomyocyte differentiation of mouse MSCs[84]
MicroRNA-125bProtected against anoikis in human MSCs[81]
PreconditioningHypoxiaExpressed and secreted prosurvival and proangiogenic factors from MSCs[25, 68, 7276]

TLR4: Toll-like receptor 4; Hsp: heat-shock protein; CCR1: chemokine (c-c motif) receptor 1; CXCR2: chemokine (c-x-c motif) receptor 2; PAI-1: plasminogen activator inhibitor 1; tTG: tissue transglutaminase; ILK: integrin-linked kinase; IGF-1: insulin growth factor-1; SDF-1: stromal cell-derived factor-1; PRCR: platelet-rich clot releasate; PMA: phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; MSCs: mesenchymal stem cells.