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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2015, Article ID 750637, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/750637
Review Article

Oxidative Stress in Myopia

1Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera, Avenida del Seminario s/n, Moncada, 46313 Valencia, Spain
2FISABIO, Oftalmología Médica, Bifurcación Pío Baroja-general Aviles, S/N, 46015 Valencia, Spain

Received 6 January 2015; Revised 10 March 2015; Accepted 17 March 2015

Academic Editor: Cinzia Signorini

Copyright © 2015 Bosch-Morell Francisco et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Myopia affected approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide in 2000, and it is expected to increase to 2.5 billion by 2020. Although optical problems can be corrected by optics or surgical procedures, normal myopia and high myopia are still an unsolved medical problem. They frequently predispose people who have them to suffer from other eye pathologies: retinal detachment, glaucoma, macular hemorrhage, cataracts, and so on being one of the main causes of visual deterioration and blindness. Genetic and environmental factors have been associated with myopia. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge in the underlying physiopathological molecular mechanisms has not permitted an adequate diagnosis, prevention, or treatment to be found. Nowadays several pieces of evidence indicate that oxidative stress may help explain the altered regulatory pathways in myopia and the appearance of associated eye diseases. On the one hand, oxidative damage associated with hypoxia myopic can alter the neuromodulation that nitric oxide and dopamine have in eye growth. On the other hand, radical superoxide or peroxynitrite production damage retina, vitreous, lens, and so on contributing to the appearance of retinopathies, retinal detachment, cataracts and so on. The objective of this review is to suggest that oxidative stress is one of the key pieces that can help solve this complex eye problem.