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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2015, Article ID 804659, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/804659
Research Article

A Nitric Oxide-Donor Furoxan Moiety Improves the Efficacy of Edaravone against Early Renal Dysfunction and Injury Evoked by Ischemia/Reperfusion

1Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 9, 10125 Torino, Italy
2Dipartimento di Biotecnologie Molecolari e Scienze per la Salute, Università di Torino, Via Nizza 52, 10126 Torino, Italy
3ININCA-CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Received 15 December 2014; Accepted 13 February 2015

Academic Editor: Trevor A. Mori

Copyright © 2015 Fausto Chiazza et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Edaravone (5-methyl-2-phenyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one, EDV) is a free-radical scavenger reduces organ ischemic injury. Here we investigated whether the protective effects of EDV in renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury may be enhanced by an EDV derivative bearing a nitric oxide- (NO-) donor furoxan moiety (NO-EDV). Male Wistar rats were subjected to renal ischemia (45 minutes), followed by reperfusion (6 hours). Administration of either EDV (1.2–6–30 µmol/kg, i.v.) or NO-EDV (0.3–1.2–6 µmol/kg, i.v.) dose-dependently attenuated markers of renal dysfunction (serum urea and creatinine, creatinine clearance, urine flow, urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin/lipocalin-2). NO-EDV exerted protective effects in the dose-range 1.2–6 µmol/kg, while a higher dose (30 µmol/kg) was needed to obtain protection by EDV. Both EDV and NO-EDV modulated tissue markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. NO-EDV, but not EDV, activated endothelial NO synthase (NOS) and blunted I/R-induced upregulation of inducible NOS, secondary to modulation of Akt and NF-κB activation, respectively. Besides NO-EDV administration inhibited I/R-induced IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, and TNF-α overproduction. Overall, these findings demonstrate that the NO-donor moiety contributes to the protection against early renal I/R injury and suggest that NO-donor EDV codrugs are worthy of additional study as innovative pharmacological tools.