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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 985845, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/985845
Review Article

Diabetes and Alzheimer Disease, Two Overlapping Pathologies with the Same Background: Oxidative Stress

1Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Sierra Mojada 800, Colonia Independencia, 44340 Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
2Department of Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA

Received 11 December 2014; Accepted 10 February 2015

Academic Editor: Angel Catalá

Copyright © 2015 Sergio Rosales-Corral et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

There are several oxidative stress-related pathways interconnecting Alzheimer’s disease and type II diabetes, two public health problems worldwide. Coincidences are so compelling that it is attractive to speculate they are the same disorder. However, some pathological mechanisms as observed in diabetes are not necessarily the same mechanisms related to Alzheimer’s or the only ones related to Alzheimer’s pathology. Oxidative stress is inherent to Alzheimer’s and feeds a vicious cycle with other key pathological features, such as inflammation and Ca2+ dysregulation. Alzheimer’s pathology by itself may lead to insulin resistance in brain, insulin resistance being an intervening variable in the neurodegenerative disorder. Hyperglycemia and insulin resistance from diabetes, overlapping with the Alzheimer’s pathology, aggravate the progression of the neurodegenerative processes, indeed. But the same pathophysiological background is behind the consequences, oxidative stress. We emphasize oxidative stress and its detrimental role in some key regulatory enzymes.