Figure 3: T2D and metabolic NADPH sources related to GSH functioning. 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase is also reduced in experimentally induced T2D. IDH: isocitrate dehydrogenase; G6PD: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; PGD: phosphogluconate dehydrogenase; ME: malic enzyme; Db: T2D; GPx: glutathione peroxidase; GSSGr: glutathione reductase.