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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 1535367, 10 pages
Research Article

Effect of High-Intensity Training in Normobaric Hypoxia on Thoroughbred Skeletal Muscle

1Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Yamaguchi University, Yoshida 1677-1, Yamaguchi 753-8515, Japan
2Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing Association, 1400-4 Shiba, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0412, Japan

Received 22 March 2016; Revised 11 July 2016; Accepted 16 August 2016

Academic Editor: Jesús G. Ponce-González

Copyright © 2016 Hiroshi Nagahisa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Hypoxic training is believed to increase endurance capacity in association with hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), a modulator of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), and to influence activation of satellite cells (SCs). However, the effect of hypoxic training on SC activation and its relation to angiogenesis has not been thoroughly investigated. Eight Thoroughbred horses were subjected to normoxic ( = 21%) or hypoxic ( = 15%) training for 3 days/week (100%  ) for 4 weeks. Incremental exercise tests (IET) were conducted on a treadmill under normoxia and the maximal oxygen consumption () and running distance were measured before and after each training session. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the gluteus medius muscle at 6 scheduled times before, during, and one week after IET for immunohistochemical analysis and real-time RT-PCR analysis. Running distance and , measured during IET, increased significantly after hypoxic training compared with normoxic training. Capillary density and mRNA expression related to SC activation (e.g., myogenin and hepatocyte growth factor) and angiogenesis (VEGF-A) increased only after hypoxic training. These results suggest that increases in mRNA expression after training enhance and prolong SC activation and angiogenesis and that nitric oxide plays an important role in these hypoxia-induced training effects.