Research Article

Amla Enhances Mitochondrial Spare Respiratory Capacity by Increasing Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Antioxidant Systems in a Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Line

Figure 1

Amla treatment stimulated mitochondrial bioenergetic function. C2C12 myotubes were pretreated with two doses of Amla (100 μg/mL or 200 μg/mL) for 48 h and subjected to mitochondrial function analysis. ((a), left panel) Schematic figure analyzing mitochondrial function using an extracellular flux analyzer. After measuring basal OCR, oligomycin, FCCP, and rotenone/antimycin A were sequentially injected to measure OCR from proton leak, maximal respiratory capacity, and nonmitochondrial respiration, respectively. OCR from nonmitochondrial respiration was subtracted from OCR at each stage to calculate the net OCR for basal (Base), proton leak (Leak), and maximal respiratory capacity (Max) values. Mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity and ATP-transratio were calculated by the formula shown. ((a), right panel) OCR measurements over time ( or 11). (b) Basal, Max, and Leak OCRs represented as average values from multiple measurements. (c) Mitochondrial spare respiratory capacity was calculated from Max and Basal OCRs. (d) ATP-transratio was calculated from Basal and Leak OCRs. ; as compared with control ( or 11).