Amla Enhances Mitochondrial Spare Respiratory Capacity by Increasing Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Antioxidant Systems in a Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Line
Amla treatment stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis by AMPK activation. C2C12 myotubes were incubated with Amla (200 μg/mL) for 48 h. Cell lysates were prepared for western blotting, RT-qPCR, and mtDNA analysis. (a) Relative mtDNA content was determined by qPCR using specific primer sets for the mitochondrial and nuclear genome. ; . (b) Phosphorylated AMPKα to total AMPKα ratios were determined by western blot. ; . (c) Relative contents of PGC1α, NRF1, and mtTFA mRNAs were determined by RT-qPCR. and ; . 18S rRNA was used as an internal control for RT-qPCR.