Amla Enhances Mitochondrial Spare Respiratory Capacity by Increasing Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Antioxidant Systems in a Murine Skeletal Muscle Cell Line
Amla treatment exhibited a cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress and concomitantly increased oxygen consumption. C2C12 myotubes were pretreated with Amla (200 μg/mL) for 48 h and then treated with t-BHP (250 μM or 500 μM). (a) Schematic showing the time points for three experiments performed to evaluate the cytoprotective effects of Amla treatment. (b) Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay at 6 h after t-BHP treatment. versus t-BHP-untreated cells; versus Amla-untreated cells treated with each t-BHP concentration; . (c) Relative ROS levels in cells were analyzed at 2 h after t-BHP stimulation. versus t-BHP-untreated cells; versus Amla-untreated cells treated with each t-BHP concentration; . (d) OCR after t-BHP stimulation was analyzed following t-BHP injection after three basal OCR measurements. OCR was measured every 8 min for a total of 160 min. Data are represented as relative-OCR values divided by the basal OCR values measured prior to t-BHP treatment ().