Melatonin-Mediated Intracellular Insulin during 2-Deoxy-d-glucose Treatment Is Reduced through Autophagy and EDC3 Protein in Insulinoma INS-1E Cells
Expression of insulin, GRP78/BiP, and EDC3 proteins with or without rapamycin treatment in rat insulinoma INS-1E cells. INS-1E cells were incubated in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 2% FBS with/without rapamycin (20 to 80 nM) for 24 hr at 37°C with 5% CO2. Insulin, GRP78/BiP, and EDC3 proteins were analyzed by Western blot (a). The relative amounts of insulin (b), GRP78/BiP (c), and EDC3 proteins (d) were quantified in Section 2. Data represent mean ± SD of three experiments (). , versus 1% FBS.