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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 3240261, 11 pages
Research Article

On the Anticataractogenic Effects of L-Carnosine: Is It Best Described as an Antioxidant, Metal-Chelating Agent or Glycation Inhibitor?

1Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing, Kingston University London, Penrhyn Road, Kingston upon Thames KT1 2EE, UK
2Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Minia University, Minia, Egypt
3School of Pharmacy, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

Received 11 April 2016; Revised 9 August 2016; Accepted 29 August 2016

Academic Editor: Janusz Gebicki

Copyright © 2016 Hamdy Abdelkader et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Supplementary Material

S1: Fluorescence intensities for the different sample compounds showing (a) the details of each compound labelled from A – H and (b) the fluorescence intensities for compounds A-D and F-E and H-G. The subtraction of fluorescence intensity of the crystallins+glucose+L-carnosine combination (F and H) from glucose + L-carnosine (E and G respectively) is shown to indicate that the action of L-carnosine is as a carbonyl scavenging agent which competes for binding to glucose and thereby reduces the glycation of crystallin proteins.

S2: Size exclusion (SE) chromatograms showing: (A) porcine lens crystallins alone and (B) porcine lens crystallins incubated with galactose (30 mM). There is very little difference between the two profiles indicating that early stage glycation does not produce sufficient cross-linking in the water soluble fraction to induce an increase in the proportion of high molecular weight aggregates.

  1. Supplementary Material