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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 3297363, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3297363
Research Article

Wild Raspberry Subjected to Simulated Gastrointestinal Digestion Improves the Protective Capacity against Ethyl Carbamate-Induced Oxidative Damage in Caco-2 Cells

1Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agro-Food Processing, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2College of Food Science and Biotechnology, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310035, China

Received 3 July 2015; Accepted 14 September 2015

Academic Editor: Hassan Obied

Copyright © 2016 Wei Chen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Ethyl carbamate (EC), a probable human carcinogen, occurs widely in many fermented foods. Previous studies indicated that EC-induced cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. Wild raspberries are rich in polyphenolic compounds, which possess potent antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of wild raspberry extracts produced before (RE) and after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion (RD) on EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells. Our primary data showed that ethyl carbamate could result in cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in Caco-2 cells and raspberry extract after digestion (RD) may be more effective than that before digestion (RE) in attenuating toxicity caused by ethyl carbamate. Further investigation by fluorescence microscope revealed that RD may significantly ameliorate EC-induced oxidative damage by scavenging the overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), maintaining mitochondrial function and preventing glutathione (GSH) depletion. In addition, HPLC-ESI-MS results showed that the contents of identified polyphenolic compounds (esculin, kaempferol O-hexoside, and pelargonidin O-hexoside) were remarkably increased after digestion, which might be related to the better protective effect of RD. Overall, our results demonstrated that raspberry extract undergoing simulated gastrointestinal digestion may improve the protective effect against EC-induced oxidative damage in Caco-2 cells.