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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 3406802, 9 pages
Research Article

Protection of Pentoxifylline against Testis Injury Induced by Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia

1Organ Transplant Institute, Chinese PLA 309th Hospital, Beijing 100091, China
2Institute of Genetic Engineering, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China

Received 30 December 2015; Revised 21 March 2016; Accepted 21 April 2016

Academic Editor: Paloma B. Liton

Copyright © 2016 Chen Yao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


To investigate the effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on spermatogenesis dysfunction induced by intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) and unveil the underlying mechanism, experimental animals were assigned to Control, IHH+Vehicle, and IHH+PTX groups and exposed to 4 cycles of 96 h of hypobaric hypoxia followed by 96 h of normobaric normoxia for 32 days. PTX was administered for 32 days. Blood and tissue samples were collected 7 days thereafter. Serum malondialdehyde levels were used to assess lipid peroxidation; ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), superoxide dismutase, and catalase and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities were assessed to determine antioxidant capacity in various samples. Testis histopathology was assessed after hematoxylin-eosin staining by Johnsen’s testicular scoring system. Meanwhile, testosterone synthase and vimentin amounts were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Sperm count, motility, and density were assessed to determine epididymal sperm quality. IHH treatment induced significant pathological changes in testicular tissue and enhanced serum lipid peroxide levels, while reducing serum FRAP, antioxidant enzyme activities, and testosterone synthase expression. Moreover, IHH impaired epididymal sperm quality and vimentin structure in Sertoli cells. Oral administration of PTX improved the pathological changes in the testis. IHH may impair spermatogenesis function of testicular tissues by inducing oxidative stress, but this impairment could be attenuated by administration of PTX.