Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2016 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

Xanthine Oxidoreductase-Derived Reactive Species: Physiological and Pathological Effects

Figure 1

Pharmaceutical applications of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) cytotoxicity. (a) Mechanisms of ROS cytotoxicity: ROS induce peroxidation of membrane lipids, DNA damage, and protein oxidation and lead to cell death, mainly via apoptosis through impaired mitochondrial function (reviewed in [13]). (b) XOR was conjugated to carriers for the experimental elimination of specific target cells. Selective cell killing was obtained by conjugating XOR to an antibody that was able to specifically deliver reactive oxygen species (ROS) to target cells [23]. Enhanced ROS delivery to solid tumors was achieved by XOR conjugation to polyethylene glycol (PEG) [24].