Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2016 / Article / Fig 2

Review Article

Xanthine Oxidoreductase-Derived Reactive Species: Physiological and Pathological Effects

Figure 2

Prophlogistic action of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species. (a) Interferon and other cytokines increase xanthine oxidoreductase gene (XOR) expression as well as the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) to xanthine oxidase (XO) and XOR serum level (reviewed in [11]). XOR-derived ROS and RNS mediate the endothelial and phagocytic cell activation that is functional in antibacterial defense (reviewed in [30]). (b) XOR products induce endothelial permeabilization and dysregulation of vascular tone, which may lead to thrombosis and atherosclerosis (reviewed in [37]).