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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 3850402, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3850402
Research Article

Effects of Allicin on Hypertension and Cardiac Function in Chronic Kidney Disease

1Renal Physiopathology Laboratory, Department of Nephrology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, 14080 Mexico City, Mexico
2Chronic Degenerative Diseases Laboratory, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 11340 Mexico City, Mexico
3Departamento de Genética y Biología Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 07360 Mexico City, Mexico
4Histopathology Laboratory, Research Subdivision, School of Medicine, Universidad Panamericana, Donatello 43, 03910 Mexico City, Mexico
5Multidisciplinary Laboratory, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, 11340 Mexico City, Mexico

Received 6 July 2016; Revised 21 September 2016; Accepted 27 September 2016

Academic Editor: Giuseppe Filomeni

Copyright © 2016 Ehécatl M. A. García-Trejo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This work was performed to study the effect of allicin on hypertension and cardiac function in a rat model of CKD. The groups were control, CKD (5/6 nephrectomy), and CKD-allicin treated (CKDA) (40 mg/kg day/p.o.). Blood pressure was monitored (weekly/6 weeks). The cardiac function, vascular response to angiotensin II, oxidative stress, and heart morphometric parameters were determined. The CKD group showed hypertension and proteinuria. The coronary perfusion and left ventricular pressures were decreased in CKD group. In contrast, the vascular response to angiotensin II and expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) were increased. These data were associated with the increment in morphometric parameters (weight of heart and left ventricle, heart/BW and left ventricular mass index, and wall thickness). Concurrently, the oxidative stress was increased and correlated inversely with the expression of Nrf2, Keap1, and antioxidant enzymes Nrf2-regulated. Allicin treatment attenuated hypertension and improved the renal and the cardiac dysfunctions; furthermore, it decreased the vascular reactivity to angiotensin II, AT1R overexpression, and preserved morphometric parameters. Allicin also downregulated Keap1 and increased Nrf2 expression, upregulated the antioxidant enzymes, and reduced oxidative stress. In conclusion, allicin showed an antihypertensive, nephroprotective, cardioprotective, and antioxidant effects, likely through downregulation of AT1R and Keap1 expression.