Synergistic Effects of Cilostazol and Probucol on ER Stress-Induced Hepatic Steatosis via Heme Oxygenase-1-Dependent Activation of Mitochondrial Biogenesis
Effect of combinatorial treatment of cilostazol (CZ) and probucol (PB) on HO-1 expression. HepG2 cells were treated with cilostazol at various concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3 μM) with or without probucol (0.1 μM) for 4 h and HO-1 mRNA levels were detected by RT-PCR (a) and real-time RT-PCR (b). Primary hepatocytes were treated with probucol (0.1 μM) and cilostazol (3 μM) individually as well as with their combination for 4 h and HO-1 mRNA and protein levels were detected by RT-PCR (c) and Western blot analysis (d), respectively. Bar graphs, lower panels of (a), (c), and (d), are summary data of normalized densitometric ratios. Quantitative data are expressed as means ± SE; . ; ; : probucol (0.1 μM) and cilostazol (3 μM) have a synergistic effect on HO-1 expression.