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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 4374671, 16 pages
Review Article

Aerobic Exercise and Pharmacological Therapies for Skeletal Myopathy in Heart Failure: Similarities and Differences

School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, 05508-030 São Paulo, SP, Brazil

Received 25 July 2015; Accepted 29 September 2015

Academic Editor: Matthew C. Zimmerman

Copyright © 2016 Aline V. Bacurau et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Skeletal myopathy has been identified as a major comorbidity of heart failure (HF) affecting up to 20% of ambulatory patients leading to shortness of breath, early fatigue, and exercise intolerance. Neurohumoral blockade, through the inhibition of renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAS) and β-adrenergic receptor blockade (β-blockers), is a mandatory pharmacological therapy of HF since it reduces symptoms, mortality, and sudden death. However, the effect of these drugs on skeletal myopathy needs to be clarified, since exercise intolerance remains in HF patients optimized with β-blockers and inhibitors of RAS. Aerobic exercise training (AET) is efficient in counteracting skeletal myopathy and in improving functional capacity and quality of life. Indeed, AET has beneficial effects on failing heart itself despite being of less magnitude compared with neurohumoral blockade. In this way, AET should be implemented in the care standards, together with pharmacological therapies. Since both neurohumoral inhibition and AET have a direct and/or indirect impact on skeletal muscle, this review aims to provide an overview of the isolated effects of these therapeutic approaches in counteracting skeletal myopathy in HF. The similarities and dissimilarities of neurohumoral inhibition and AET therapies are also discussed to identify potential advantageous effects of these combined therapies for treating HF.