Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 6135319, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6135319
Research Article

Grape Powder Improves Age-Related Decline in Mitochondrial and Kidney Functions in Fischer 344 Rats

1Heart and Kidney Institute, Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
2University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA

Received 16 March 2016; Revised 15 June 2016; Accepted 15 June 2016

Academic Editor: Bruno Meloni

Copyright © 2016 Indira Pokkunuri et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We examined the effects and mechanism of grape powder- (GP-) mediated improvement, if any, on aging kidney function. Adult (3-month) and aged (21-month) Fischer 344 rats were treated without (controls) and with GP (1.5% in drinking water) and kidney parameters were measured. Control aged rats showed higher levels of proteinuria and urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), which decreased with GP treatment in these rats. Renal protein carbonyls (protein oxidation) and gp91phox-NADPH oxidase levels were high in control aged rats, suggesting oxidative stress burden in these rats. GP treatment in aged rats restored these parameters to the levels of adult rats. Moreover, glomerular filtration rate and sodium excretion were low in control aged rats suggesting compromised kidney function, which improved with GP treatment in aged rats. Interestingly, low renal mitochondrial respiration and ATP levels in control aged rats were associated with reduced levels of mitochondrial biogenesis marker MtTFA. Also, Nrf2 proteins levels were reduced in control aged rats. GP treatment increased levels of MtTFA and Nrf2 in aged rats. These results suggest that GP by potentially regulating Nrf2 improves aging mitochondrial and kidney functions.