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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 6301712, 10 pages
Research Article

The Plant-Derived Chalcone 2,2′,5′-Trihydroxychalcone Provides Neuroprotection against Toll-Like Receptor 4 Triggered Inflammation in Microglia

1Mayne Medical School, 288 Herston Road, Brisbane, QLD 4006, Australia
2Department of Neuroinflammation, University College London Institute of Neurology, 1 Wakefield Street, London WC1N 1PK, UK
3Department of Chemistry, Vassar College, 124 Raymond Avenue, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604-0484, USA

Received 20 July 2015; Accepted 30 September 2015

Academic Editor: Felipe Dal Pizzol

Copyright © 2016 Manasi Jiwrajka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Chalcones are plant metabolites with potential for therapeutic exploitation as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative agents. Here we explored the neuroprotective effects of 2,2′,5′-trihydroxychalcone (225THC), a potent antioxidant with radical-scavenging properties. 225THC was found to be a potent inhibitor of apoptosis in stimulated primary rat neuronal cultures. This was likely mediated by an anti-inflammatory effect on microglial cells since 225THC inhibited LPS-stimulated TNF-α and IL-6 secretion from primary rat microglia and modulated the cytokine/chemokine profile of BV2 microglial cells. Additionally, 225THC inhibited LPS-evoked inducible nitric oxide synthase expression but did not influence endogenous superoxide generation. Microglial flow cytometric analyses indicated the 225THC treatment induced a shift from an M1-like phenotype to a more downregulated microglial profile. Taken together these data suggest that the chalcone 2,2′,5′-trihydroxychalcone can modulate neuroinflammatory activation in brain-derived microglia and holds promise as a therapeutic in neuroinflammatory conditions.