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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 7124251, 9 pages
Research Article

Punicalagin Induces Serum Low-Density Lipoprotein Influx to Macrophages

1Department of Oxidative Stress and Human Diseases, MIGAL–Galilee Research Institute, 11016 Kiryat Shmona, Israel
2Tel-Hai College, 12208 Upper Galilee, Israel
3Faculty of Medicine in the Galilee, Bar-Ilan University, 1311502 Safed, Israel
4Eliachar Research Laboratory, Western Galilee Hospital, 22100 Nahariya, Israel

Received 24 January 2016; Revised 11 May 2016; Accepted 31 May 2016

Academic Editor: Gabriele Saretzki

Copyright © 2016 Dana Atrahimovich et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Supplementary Material

The first symptom of atherosclerosis disease is the process of oxidized LDL take-up by macrophage through a different receptor than the LDL is taken-up. Upon this process, cells are become what is called "foam cell". Although the LDL particles used for the experiment were not oxidized (as was determined by measuring the level of lipid peroxidation products on the LDL particles), we, nevertheless, aimed to make sure that LDL influx by the cells does not lead to Foam cell formation. Cells were incubated for 16 h with LDL/LDL-FITC (although the experiment took only 3 h), watched under a microscope and compared to macrophages incubated for 16 h with oxidized LDL. Morphologically, foam cells have distorted shape, and they are full of oxidized lipid as can be seen in Supplementary Fig. 1C. Supplementary Fig. 1A and B shows that upon LDL/LDL-FITC incubation the cells looked the same as in the control (cells that weren't incubated with LDL/LDL-FITC), what means that no foam cell formation observed upon the LDL/LDL-FITC influx.

  1. Supplementary Material