Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2016 / Article / Fig 2

Research Article

The Essential Oils of Rhaponticum carthamoides Hairy Roots and Roots of Soil-Grown Plants: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities

Figure 2

Effects of Rhaponticum carthamoides HR and SGR essential oils on IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and GM-CSF levels in LPS-stimulated astrocytes. The levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated astrocytes were measured by ELISA Kit. Astrocytes were incubated for 24 h with 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL of HR and SGR essential oils and LPS (1 μg/mL). The data is represented as means ± SD and was obtained from three independent experiments. versus LPS-treated cells; SGR essential oil versus HR essential oil.

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