The Essential Oils of Rhaponticum carthamoides Hairy Roots and Roots of Soil-Grown Plants: Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, and Antioxidant Activities
The effect of Rhaponticum carthamoides HR and SGR essential oils on the expression of the inflammatory-related gene (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, GM-CSF, and TNF-α) in LPS-stimulated astrocytes. mRNA expression levels were measured by RT-PCR analysis. Astrocytes were incubated for 24 h with 100 μg/mL of HR or SGR essential oils and LPS (1 μg/mL). (a) The bar graph shows the relative density. The data is represented as means ± SD of three independent experiments. versus LPS-treated cells. (b) Lanes: 1: control; 2: cell incubated with SGR essential oil; 3: cell incubated with HR essential oil; 4: cell incubated with LPS; 5: cell incubated with SGR essential oil + LPS; 6: cell incubated with HR essential oil + LPS.
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