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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 8703645, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8703645
Research Article

Efficacy of Mitochondrial Antioxidant Plastoquinonyl-decyl-triphenylphosphonium Bromide (SkQ1) in the Rat Model of Autoimmune Arthritis

1Institute of Mitoengineering, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
2Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
3Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Novosibirsk, Russia
4Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
5Martsinovsky Institute of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia

Received 11 December 2015; Revised 22 March 2016; Accepted 18 April 2016

Academic Editor: Birke Bartosch

Copyright © 2016 Alexander A. Andreev-Andrievskiy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common autoimmune diseases. Many antioxidants have been tested in arthritis, but their efficacy was, at best, marginal. In this study, a novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, plastoquinonyl-decyl-triphenylphosphonium bromide (SkQ1), was tested in vivo to prevent and cure experimental autoimmune arthritis. In conventional Wistar rats, SkQ1 completely prevented the development of clinical signs of arthritis if administered with food before induction. Further, SkQ1 significantly reduced the fraction of animals that developed clinical signs of arthritis and severity of pathological lesions if administration began immediately after induction of arthritis or at the onset of first symptoms (day 14 after induction). In specific pathogen-free Wistar rats, SkQ1 administered via gavage after induction of arthritis did not reduce the fraction of animals with arthritis but decreased the severity of lesions upon pathology examination in a dose-dependent manner. Efficacious doses of SkQ1 were in the range of 0.25–1.25 nmol/kg/day (0.13–0.7 μg/kg/day), which is much lower than doses commonly used for conventional antioxidants. SkQ1 promoted apoptosis of neutrophils in vitro, which may be one of the mechanisms underlying its pharmacological activity. Considering its low toxicity and the wide therapeutic window, SkQ1 may be a valuable additional therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.