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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2016, Article ID 9047821, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9047821
Research Article

High Fat Diet-Induced Skeletal Muscle Wasting Is Decreased by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Administration: Implications on Oxidative Stress, Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway Activation, and Myonuclear Apoptosis

1Laboratorio de Biologia y Fisiopatologia Molecular, Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas y Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Andres Bello, 8370146 Santiago, Chile
2Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy, 8370146 Santiago, Chile
3Departamento de Ciencias Quimicas y Biologicas, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Bernardo O Higgins, 8370993 Santiago, Chile
4Departamento de Gastroenterologıa, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 8330024 Santiago, Chile
5Laboratorio de Fisiologia Integrativa, Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas y Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Andres Bello, 8370146 Santiago, Chile
6Centro de Medicina Regenerativa, Facultad de Medicina, Clinica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, 7710162 Santiago, Chile

Received 17 March 2016; Accepted 14 June 2016

Academic Editor: Saeid Golbidi

Copyright © 2016 Johanna Abrigo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Obesity can lead to skeletal muscle atrophy, a pathological condition characterized by the loss of strength and muscle mass. A feature of muscle atrophy is a decrease of myofibrillar proteins as a result of ubiquitin proteasome pathway overactivation, as evidenced by increased expression of the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. Additionally, other mechanisms are related to muscle wasting, including oxidative stress, myonuclear apoptosis, and autophagy. Stem cells are an emerging therapy in the treatment of chronic diseases such as high fat diet-induced obesity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a population of self-renewable and undifferentiated cells present in the bone marrow and other mesenchymal tissues of adult individuals. The present study is the first to analyze the effects of systemic MSC administration on high fat diet-induced skeletal muscle atrophy in the tibialis anterior of mice. Treatment with MSCs reduced losses of muscle strength and mass, decreases of fiber diameter and myosin heavy chain protein levels, and fiber type transitions. Underlying these antiatrophic effects, MSC administration also decreased ubiquitin proteasome pathway activation, oxidative stress, and myonuclear apoptosis. These results are the first to indicate that systemically administered MSCs could prevent muscle wasting associated with high fat diet-induced obesity and diabetes.