Table 2: Carbonyl compounds and clearance.

Carbonyl compoundsCarbonyl clearance

Acrolein (CH2=CHCHO)
Glyoxal (OHCCHO)
Methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO)
Crotonaldehyde (CH3CH=CHCHO)
Malondialdehyde (OCHCH2CHO)
4-Hydroxynonenal (OCHCH=CHCH(-OH)(CH2)4CH3)
(1) Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) catalyze carbonyl-glutathione conjugation
(2) Aldehyde reductase and aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) catalyze reduction to alcoholic forms
(3) Aldehyde dehydrogenases catalyze oxidation to carbonic acids