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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017, Article ID 1096385, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1096385
Review Article

High Circulating Levels of ANGPTL2: Beyond a Clinical Marker of Systemic Inflammation

1Faculty of Medicine, Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada
2Department of Surgery, Montreal University, Montreal, QC, Canada

Correspondence should be addressed to Nathalie Thorin-Trescases; gro.ihm-mci@sesacsert.eilahtan

Received 29 May 2017; Revised 25 July 2017; Accepted 2 August 2017; Published 24 August 2017

Academic Editor: Mark Crabtree

Copyright © 2017 Nathalie Thorin-Trescases and Eric Thorin. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Angiopoietin-like 2 (ANGPTL2) is a proinflammatory protein belonging to the angiopoietin-like family. ANGPTL2 is secreted and detected in the systemic circulation. Different observational clinical studies reported that circulating levels of ANGPTL2 increase significantly in various chronic inflammatory diseases and showed associations between ANGPTL2 levels and diagnosis and/or prognosis of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and various types of cancers. However, these studies did not address the following questions: (a) what are the sources of circulating ANGPTL2? (b) How and by which mechanisms an increase in circulating ANGPTL2 contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases? (c) Does an increase in circulating levels of ANGPTL2 measured in a well-defined chronic medical condition originate from a specific cell type? Mechanistic hypotheses have been proposed based on studies performed in mice and cultured cells, and proinflammatory, prooxidative, proangiogenic, proliferative, and antiapoptotic properties of ANGPTL2 have been reported. The aim of this review is to propose answers concerning the potential sources of circulating ANGPTL2 and its common pathological properties associated with various chronic inflammatory diseases and death in humans. We believe that high circulating ANGPTL2 levels are more than an inflammatory marker and may reflect the senescent cellular load of an individual.