Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2017 / Article / Fig 2

Review Article

Honey, Propolis, and Royal Jelly: A Comprehensive Review of Their Biological Actions and Health Benefits

Figure 2

Molecular mechanisms responsible for anticancer and antitumor activities of honey products. IRS—insulin receptor substrate, MAPK—mitogen-activated protein kinase, NF-κB—nuclear factor kappa B, IL-1β—interleukin-1 beta, IL-6—interleukin-6, TNF-α—tumor necrosis factor alpha, iNOS—inducible nitric oxide synthase, COX—cyclooxygenase, ROS—reactive oxygen species, Bcl-2—B-cell lymphoma-2, and PARP—poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases.