Figure 3: Effect of MFE on EC-induced ROS production in HepG2 cells. (a) Cells were pretreated with different concentrations of MFE (0.5 mg/mL, 1 mg/mL, and 2 mg/mL) for 24 h and then incubated with EC for another 24 h. After that, cells were collected and incubated with 10 μM of DCFH-DA at 37°C for 30 min, then washed with PBS and evaluated by fluorescence microscope. (b) The quantitative data of panel (a) and results were expressed as mean DCF fluorescence intensity ± standard deviations. Different letters represent significant difference (). EC, ethyl carbamate; MFE, mulberry fruit extract; DCFH-DA, 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate.