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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017, Article ID 2712751, 18 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2712751
Review Article

The Impact of Environmental Factors in Influencing Epigenetics Related to Oxidative States in the Cardiovascular System

1Department of Medical Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Latina, Italy
2Institute of Cell Biology and Neurobiology-CNR, Monterotondo, Rome, Italy
3Department of Radiology, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, Roma, Italy
4Department of AngioCardioNeurology, IRCCS NeuroMed, 86077 Pozzilli, Italy
5Aston Medical Research Institute, Aston Medical School, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK

Correspondence should be addressed to Elena De Falco; ti.1amorinu@oclafed.anele

Received 24 January 2017; Revised 3 April 2017; Accepted 12 April 2017; Published 21 May 2017

Academic Editor: Stefano Toldo

Copyright © 2017 Francesco Angelini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Oxidative states exert a significant influence on a wide range of biological and molecular processes and functions. When their balance is shifted towards enhanced amounts of free radicals, pathological phenomena can occur, as the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in tissue microenvironment or in the systemic circulation can be detrimental. Epidemic chronic diseases of western societies, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes correlate with the imbalance of redox homeostasis. Current advances in our understanding of epigenetics have revealed a parallel scenario showing the influence of oxidative stress as a major regulator of epigenetic gene regulation via modification of DNA methylation, histones, and microRNAs. This has provided both the biological link and a potential molecular explanation between oxidative stress and cardiovascular/metabolic phenomena. Accordingly, in this review, we will provide current insights on the physiological and pathological impact of changes in oxidative states on cardiovascular disorders, by specifically focusing on the influence of epigenetic regulation. A special emphasis will highlight the effect on epigenetic regulation of human’s current life habits, external and environmental factors, including food intake, tobacco, air pollution, and antioxidant-based approaches. Additionally, the strategy to quantify oxidative states in humans in order to determine which biological marker could best match a subject’s profile will be discussed.