Figure 2: Mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle negatively regulates muscle mass. Elevated IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β during cancer cachexia disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis leading to dysfunction mitochondria. Dysfunctional mitochondria release aberrant amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease ATP production. This leads to chronic activation of AMPK to negatively regulate protein synthesis causing decreased muscle mass. The figure was made with Servier Medical Art (http://www.servier.com/Powerpoint-image-bank).