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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017, Article ID 3494289, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3494289
Review Article

FOXO Transcriptional Factors and Long-Term Living

1Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beisanhuan East Road, Beijing 100029, China
2Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan
3Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
4Department of Chemistry, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan
5Department of Pharmacy, University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
6Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan

Correspondence should be addressed to Ghulam Murtaza; moc.liamg@653ragodmg and Jianxin Chen; nc.ude.mcub@xjc

Received 6 May 2017; Accepted 21 June 2017; Published 15 August 2017

Academic Editor: Jacek Kurzepa

Copyright © 2017 Ghulam Murtaza et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Several pathologies such as neurodegeneration and cancer are associated with aging, which is affected by many genetic and environmental factors. Healthy aging conceives human longevity, possibly due to carrying the defensive genes. For instance, FOXO (forkhead box O) genes determine human longevity. FOXO transcription factors are involved in the regulation of longevity phenomenon via insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling. Only one FOXO gene (FOXO DAF-16) exists in invertebrates, while four FOXO genes, that is, FOXO1, FOXO3, FOXO4, and FOXO6 are found in mammals. These four transcription factors are involved in the multiple cellular pathways, which regulate growth, stress resistance, metabolism, cellular differentiation, and apoptosis in mammals. However, the accurate mode of longevity by FOXO factors is unclear until now. This article describes briefly the existing knowledge that is related to the role of FOXO factors in human longevity.