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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017, Article ID 5424097, 7 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5424097
Research Article

Probucol Reduces Testicular Torsion/Detorsion-Induced Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

1Department of Surgery, School of Nursing, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province 310053, China
2Department of Urology, Third Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province 310009, China
3Department of Clinical Medicine, Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province 310053, China
4Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province 310006, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Si-Ming Wei; moc.liamtoh@1791msw

Received 16 July 2017; Revised 4 August 2017; Accepted 10 August 2017; Published 10 September 2017

Academic Editor: Vladimir Jakovljevic

Copyright © 2017 Si-Ming Wei et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of probucol, a potent antioxidant, on testicular torsion/detorsion-induced ischemia/reperfusion injury attributable to excess reactive oxygen species released by neutrophils. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated control, ischemia-reperfusion, and probucol-treated groups. In the ischemia-reperfusion group, testicular detorsion was performed after 2 hours of left testicular torsion. In the probucol-treated group, after performing the same surgical procedures as in the ischemia-reperfusion group, probucol was given intraperitoneally at testicular detorsion. Orchiectomy was performed to evaluate protein expression of E-selectin which is an endothelial cell adhesion molecule and mediates neutrophil adhesion to vascular endothelium, myeloperoxidase activity (a mark of neutrophil accumulation in the testis), malondialdehyde level (an indicator of reactive oxygen species), and spermatogenesis. E-selectin protein expression, myeloperoxidase activity, and malondialdehyde level were significantly increased, and testicular spermatogenesis was significantly decreased in the ipsilateral testes in the ischemia-reperfusion group, compared with the control group. The probucol-treated group showed significant decreases in E-selectin protein expression, myeloperoxidase activity, and malondialdehyde level and significant increase in testicular spermatogenesis in the ipsilateral testes, compared with the ischemia-reperfusion group. These findings indicate that probucol can protect testicular spermatogenesis by reducing overgeneration of reactive oxygen species by inhibiting E-selectin protein expression and neutrophil accumulation in the testis.