Echinacoside Alleviates UVB Irradiation-Mediated Skin Damage via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage, and Apoptosis
Echinacoside modulated the expression of ATR, p53, hnRNP K, PIAS3, PARP, and XPA in HaCaT cells. (a) Cells were pretreated with echinacoside (25, 50, and 100 μM) prior to UVB exposure. And 24 h later with UVB irradiation, total cell lysates were harvested. The expression of p-ATR, ATR, p-p53, and p53 proteins was determined by Western blotting. (b) The expression of PIAS3, SUMOylated hnRNP K, and hnRNP K proteins was determined by Western blotting. (c) The expression of cleaved PARP and XPA proteins was determined by Western blotting. GAPDH was used as an internal standard. Data are presented as means ± SD (). ## versus control group, versus UVB group.
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