Echinacoside Alleviates UVB Irradiation-Mediated Skin Damage via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage, and Apoptosis
Echinacoside inhibited UVB-induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in HaCaT cells. (a) Cells were pretreated with echinacoside (25, 50, and 100 μM) prior UVB exposure. And 24 h later with UVB irradiation, the cells were collected to quantify DNA fragmentation using ELISA analysis. (b) Genomic DNA was isolated and checked for fragmentation on a 1% agarose gel. (c) Cells were treated with echinacoside (25, 50, and 100 μM) and exposed to UVB radiation. Apoptotic bodies were observed by TUNEL assay. (d) The apoptotic cells (annexin V+/PI-) were analyzed by flow cytometer. Data are presented as means ± SD (). ## versus control group, versus UVB group.