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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017, Article ID 6894040, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/6894040
Research Article

Histopathological Changes in the Kidney following Congestive Heart Failure by Volume Overload in Rats

1Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charité University Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum and Campus Charité Mitte, Berlin, Germany
2Department of Anatomy, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Shaaban A. Mousa; ed.etirahc@asuom.nabaahs

Received 22 February 2017; Revised 7 April 2017; Accepted 2 May 2017; Published 31 July 2017

Academic Editor: Sidhartha D. Ray

Copyright © 2017 Noureddin B. Aboryag et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. This study investigated histopathological changes and apoptotic factors that may be involved in the renal damage caused by congestive heart failure in a rat model of infrarenal aortocaval fistula (ACF). Methods. Heart failure was induced using a modified approach of ACF in male Wistar rats. Sham-operated controls and ACF rats were characterized by their morphometric and hemodynamic parameters and investigated for their histopathological, ultrastructural, and apoptotic factor changes in the kidney. Results. ACF-induced heart failure is associated with histopathological signs of congestion and glomerular and tubular atrophy, as well as nuclear and cellular degeneration in the kidney. In parallel, overexpression of proapoptotic Bax protein, release of cytochrome C from the outer mitochondrial membrane into cell cytoplasm, and nuclear transfer of activated caspase 3 indicate apoptotic events. This was confirmed by electron microscopic findings of apoptotic signs in the kidney such as swollen mitochondria and degenerated nuclei in renal tubular cells. Conclusions. This study provides morphological evidence of renal injury during heart failure which may be due to caspase-mediated apoptosis via overexpression of proapoptotic Bax protein, subsequent mitochondrial cytochrome C release, and final nuclear transfer of activated caspase 3, supporting the notion of a cardiorenal syndrome.