Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Shungite against Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice
Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels in mineral-rich and mineral-less shungite groups showed immunomodulatory effect. Shown are the serum cytokine concentrations of IL-1β (a), IL-6 (b), IL-10 (c), IL-17 (d), IL-KC (e), and TNF-α (f) determined using multiplex assay in shungite-treated UVB-induced mice. Control groups include non-UVB-irradiated group (NC), UVB-irradiated only group (UV), UVB + positive control fullerene C60-treated group (PC), and UVB + olive oil-treated group (OIL), while experimental groups include UVB + mineral-rich shungite-treated group (MRS) and mineral-less shungite-treated group (MLS). Statistical analysis was carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by subsequent multiple comparison test (Tukey’s multiple comparisons test) using GraphPad Prism version 5.0. All values are represented as mean ± SD (), , , and versus each treatment.
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