Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Shungite against Ultraviolet B Irradiation-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice
Nrf2 and MAPK proteins, P-ERK and p-JNK, are involved in the antioxidant effect of shungite against UVB-induced oxidative stress. Signaling cascade controlling cellular responses were measured for protein expression. Mineral-rich shungite (MRS) and mineral less shungite (MRS) induced phosphorylation of p-ERK (a), p-JNK (b) and Nrf2 (c), and β-actin (d) signaling pathway. Control groups include non-UVB-irradiated group (NC), UVB-irradiated only group (UV), UVB + positive control fullerene-treated group (PC), and UVB + olive oil-treated group (OIL), while experimental groups include UVB + mineral-rich shungite-treated group (MRS) and mineral-less shungite-treated group (MLS). Statistical analysis was carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by subsequent multiple comparison test (Tukey’s multiple comparisons test) using GraphPad Prism version 5.0. All values are represented as mean ± SD, , , , , and versus each treatment.
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