A Carotenoid Extract from a Southern Italian Cultivar of Pumpkin Triggers Nonprotective Autophagy in Malignant Cells
CEN inhibits SAOs autophagic flux. (a) Cells were treated with NE and CEN (200 μg/ml, w/v) for 168 h with or without 20 μM chloroquine added in the last 4 h of incubation. Autophagosome quantification was expressed as FITC/DAPI fluorescence ratio and obtained using Cyto-ID staining, as described. Bar graphs represent the mean ± SD; symbols indicate significance: with respect to NE and with respect to untreated cells; no significant differences between CEN + chloroquine versus CEN alone. (b) Immunoblotting of LC3-I/LC3-II in SAOs cells treated as in (a). Bands are representative of one out of three separate experiments performed. Densitometric analysis values (between panels) were expressed by the ratio LC3-II/α-tubulin.