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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017, Article ID 7941563, 19 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7941563
Review Article

Aging: Molecular Pathways and Implications on the Cardiovascular System

Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas/Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Cidade Universitária-Campus I, Caixa Postal 5009, 58.051-970 João Pessoa, PB, Brazil

Correspondence should be addressed to Isac Almeida de Medeiros; rb.bpfu.ftl@casi

Received 5 May 2017; Accepted 27 June 2017; Published 9 August 2017

Academic Editor: Consuelo Borrás

Copyright © 2017 Arthur José Pontes Oliveira de Almeida et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The world’s population over 60 years is growing rapidly, reaching 22% of the global population in the next decades. Despite the increase in global longevity, individual healthspan needs to follow this growth. Several diseases have their prevalence increased by age, such as cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding the aging biology mechanisms is fundamental to the pursuit of cardiovascular health. In this way, aging is characterized by a gradual decline in physiological functions, involving the increased number in senescent cells into the body. Several pathways lead to senescence, including oxidative stress and persistent inflammation, as well as energy failure such as mitochondrial dysfunction and deregulated autophagy, being ROS, AMPK, SIRTs, mTOR, IGF-1, and p53 key regulators of the metabolic control, connecting aging to the pathways which drive towards diseases. In addition, senescence can be induced by cellular replication, which resulted from telomere shortening. Taken together, it is possible to draw a common pathway unifying aging to cardiovascular diseases, and the central point of this process, senescence, can be the target for new therapies, which may result in the healthspan matching the lifespan.