Table 1: Effect of FPEs on the nipple and sex hormones in rats.

GroupsNipple (mm)Sex hormones
HeightDiameterE2 (pg/ml)P (pg/ml)LH (pg/ml)FSH (pg/ml)

Control1.22 ± 0.14b1.27 ± 0.10b33.56 ± 12.43b70.44 ± 13.34b4.63 ± 0.69b5.17 ± 0.83b
SPE control1.27 ± 0.11b1.29 ± 0.14b38.24 ± 8.31b79.25 ± 16.08b5.27 ± 1.08b4.63 ± 1.32b
EB + PR1.86 ± 0.17a1.78 ± 0.12a166.55 ± 46.51a151.22 ± 26.25a9.16 ± 2.71a18.46 ± 3.15a
EB + PR+ 30 ml SPE/kg1.45 ± 0.23b1.41 ± 0.21b62.55 ± 42.63a,b125.53 ± 19.23a,b5.77 ± 1.54b8.64 ± 3.24b
EB + PR+ 15 ml SPE/kg1.64 ± 0.24a1.46 ± 0.18ab98.24 ± 31.31ab142.65 ± 7.19a7.15 ± 2.26ab10.52 ± 2.54ab
EB + PR+ 5 ml SPE/kg1.76 ± 0.09a1.72 ± 0.16a135.62 ± 36.89ab138.97 ± 16.52a8.23 ± 1.84a16.63 ± 2.11ab

SPE: fermented papaya extract; EB: estradiol benzoate; PR: progestin; E2: estradiol; P: progesterone; LH: luteinizing hormone; FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone. Statistical differences are within the individuals at the same column. a compared with control group; b compared with EB + PR group.