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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017, Article ID 8398072, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8398072
Research Article

The Effects of Blast Exposure on Protein Deimination in the Brain

1Neuroscience Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA
2Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Gregory P. Mueller; ude.shusu@relleum.yrogerg

Received 19 January 2017; Accepted 16 March 2017; Published 24 May 2017

Academic Editor: Francisco J. Romero

Copyright © 2017 Peter J. Attilio et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Oxidative stress and calcium excitotoxicity are hallmarks of traumatic brain injury (TBI). While these early disruptions may be corrected over a relatively short period of time, long-lasting consequences of TBI including impaired cognition and mood imbalances can persist for years, even in the absence of any evidence of overt injury based on neuroimaging. This investigation examined the possibility that disordered protein deimination occurs as a result of TBI and may thus contribute to the long-term pathologies of TBI. Protein deimination is a calcium-activated, posttranslational modification implicated in the autoimmune diseases rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, where aberrant deimination creates antigenic epitopes that elicit an autoimmune attack. The present study utilized proteomic analyses to show that blast TBI alters the deimination status of proteins in the porcine cerebral cortex. The affected proteins represent a small subset of the entire brain proteome and include glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin, proteins reported to be involved in autoimmune-based pathologies. The data also indicate that blast injury is associated with an increase in immunoglobulins in the brain, possibly representing autoantibodies directed against novel protein epitopes. These findings indicate that aberrant protein deimination is a biomarker for blast TBI and may therefore underlie chronic neuropathologies of head injury.