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Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 8539026, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8539026
Research Article

Activation of p47phox as a Mechanism of Bupivacaine-Induced Burst Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Neural Toxicity

Department of Anesthesiology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510282, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Le Li; moc.621@11elil and Shi-yuan Xu; moc.361@553uxnauyihs

Received 7 February 2017; Accepted 4 April 2017; Published 8 June 2017

Academic Editor: Yanfang Chen

Copyright © 2017 Yu-jie Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Bupivacaine has been shown to induce neurotoxicity through inducing excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. NOX2 is one of the most important sources of ROS in the nervous system, and its activation requires the membrane translocation of subunit p47phox. However, the role of p47phox in bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity has not been explored. In our in vitro study, cultured human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated with 1.5 mM bupivacaine to induce neurotoxicity. Membrane translocation of p47phox was assessed by measuring the cytosol/membrane ratio of p47phox. The effects of the NOX inhibitor VAS2870 and p47phox-siRNA on bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity were investigated. Furthermore, the effect of VAS2870 on bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity was assessed in vivo in rats. All these changes were reversed by pretreatment with VAS2870 or transfection with p47phox-siRNA in SH-SY5Y cells. Similarly, pretreatment with VAS2870 attenuated bupivacaine-induced neuronal toxicity in rats. It is concluded that enhancing p47phox membrane translocation is a major mechanism whereby bupivacaine induced neurotoxicity and that pretreatment with VAS2870 or local p47phox gene knockdown attenuated bupivacaine-induced neuronal cell injury.