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Figure 6: Aged mitochondria due to defective mitochondrial recycling in AD. (a) Scheme of the function of lentiviral MitoTimer tool. (b) Graph showing intensity of red fluorescence per cell measured by flow cytometry over timer in healthy and SAD fibroblasts previously infected by a lentivirus encoding MitoTimer and treated for 24 h with doxycycline. (c) Graph representing a similar study but in the presence of CCCP (20 μM) for 24 h after doxycycline removal. (b)–(c) Values represent means and standard deviations of the percentage of red fluorescence intensity mean per cell (aged mitochondria) with respect to control condition that is the average of red fluorescence intensity mean after doxycycline removal without CCCP (0 h time point) ( independent experiments using the healthy/SAD couple AG01362/AG05859, , and ). (d)–(e). Analysis of microarray expression of genes involved in autophagy (d) and mitophagy (e). Graphs show dot plots of the expression of the indicated genes using in upper rows samples from 84 patients, of which are healthy subjects and are AD patients retrieved from Berchtold data set [29], and in lower rows controls and AD brain samples retrieved from the Hisayama study [13]. Correspondent value was determined by Student’s t-test and is showed for each graph.