Comparison of Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Flavonoid-Rich Common and Tartary Buckwheat Sprout Extracts in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 and Peritoneal Macrophages
Inhibitory effects of common buckwheat sprout (CBS) and tartary buckwheat sprout (TBS) extracts on (a) NO production and (b) levels of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. RAW 264.7 macrophages were incubated for 24 h, and exposed to sprout extracts together with LPS (1 μg/mL) for 24 h. Levels of iNOS and COX-2 expression were determined using Western blot assay. Relative protein levels are expressed as the percentage of intensity to the cells treated with LPS alone, which was set to 100%. Data represent the means ± standard deviation of three independent experiments. ### indicates in comparison to untreated controls; significant difference was determined using unpaired Student’s t-test. indicates in comparison to cells treated with LPS alone by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test for multiple comparison.