Comparison of Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Flavonoid-Rich Common and Tartary Buckwheat Sprout Extracts in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 and Peritoneal Macrophages
Effect of common buckwheat sprout (CBS) and tartary buckwheat sprout (TBS) extracts on LPS-stimulated (a) MAPK and (b) MAPK kinase 4 activation. RAW 264.7 macrophages were incubated for 24 h and exposed to CBS or TBS extracts with LPS (1 μg/mL) for 24 h. Whole protein was determined using Western blot assay. Relative protein levels are expressed as the percentage of intensity to the cells treated with LPS alone, which was set to 100%. Data represent the means ± standard deviation of three independent experiments. † indicates in comparison with cells treated with LPS alone (unpaired Student’s t-test). ### indicates in comparison with untreated controls (unpaired Student’s t-test). and in comparison with cells treated with LPS alone by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test for multiple comparison.