Comparison of Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Flavonoid-Rich Common and Tartary Buckwheat Sprout Extracts in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 and Peritoneal Macrophages
Inhibitory effects of common and tartary buckwheat sprout extracts on the secretion of (a) IL-6, (b) IL-12, and (c) TNF-α cytokines in LPS-induced peritoneal macrophages of male BALB/c mice. Mouse peritoneal macrophages were exposed to LPS (100 ng/mL) with sprout extracts. Levels of cytokine expression in culture media were measured by ELISA. Data represent the means ± standard deviation of three independent experiments. ### indicates in comparison with untreated controls; significant difference was determined using unpaired Student’s t-test. , , and in comparison with cells treated with LPS alone by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test for multiple comparison.