Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity / 2017 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Impact of Hot Environment on Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalance, Renal Damage, Hemolysis, and Immune Activation Postmarathon

Table 2

Fluid, electrolyte balance, and renal function after the marathon race in the temperate and hot environment.

Reference valuesBeforeImmediately after1 day after3 days after

Sodium (mMol/L)137–145
 HE142 ± 0.4##147 ± 0.5##142 ± 0.4#143 ± 0.3#
 TE139 ± 0.3140 ± 0.4140 ± 0.3141 ± 0.3
Magnesium (mg/dL)1.7–2.5
 HE2.5 ± 0.04#2 ± 0.05#2.2 ± 0.032.4 ± 0.03#
 TE2.3 ± 0.11.9 ± 0.12.2 ± 0.12.3 ± 0.1
Osmol (mOsm/L)275–295
 HE296 ± 1##309 ± 1##298 ± 1##297 ± 1##
 TE289 ± 1294 ± 1293 ± 1293 ± 1
Potassium (mMol/L)3.5–5.6
 HE3.9 ± 0.05##4.5 ± 0.14.4 ± 0.14.3 ± 0.1#
 TE4.5 ± 0.054.4 ± 0.14.5 ± 0.14.5 ± 0.1
Calcium (mg/dL)8.4–11
 HE9.3 ± 0.1##9.3 ± 0.1##9.1 ± 0.1##8.9 ± 0.1##
 TE9.6 ± 0.19.8 ± 0.19.6 ± 0.19.5 ± 0.1
Creatinine (mg/dL)0.7–1.3
 HE0.9 ± 0.02##1.4 ± 0.05#1 ± 0.030.9 ± 0.02#
 TE1 ± 0.021.5 ± 0.11 ± 0.031 ± 0.03
Urea (mg/dL)<40
 HE40 ± 149 ± 249 ± 2#38 ± 1#
 TE38 ± 148 ± 146 ± 235 ± 2
UD (kg/m3)1005–1030
 HE1019 ± 21025 ± 1#1022 ± 1#1021 ± 2#
 TE1016 ± 11019 ± 11013 ± 11014 ± 1
Urine pH5-6
 HE6 ± 0.1#6 ± 0.1##6 ± 0.1##6 ± 0.1#
 TE6 ± 0.25 ± 0.15 ± 0.16 ± 0.1
Urine WBC (cell/mL)0–10,000
 HE1638 ± 31410,828 ± 2170#4589 ± 569#2778 ± 755
 TE2310 ± 5984828 ± 11852071 ± 2302250 ± 444
Hematuria (cell/mL)0–10,000
 HE3259 ± 153976,017 ± 36,9393679 ± 736#4259 ± 1409#
 TE1241 ± 14644,241 ± 13,5384679 ± 20702500 ± 878
Urine cylinders (units/mL)0
 HE0 ± 0463 ± 144#0 ± 00 ± 0
 TE69 ± 4835 ± 35107 ± 790 ± 0
Proteinuria (mg/dL)0
 HE3 ± 29 ± 51 ± 1#0 ± 0
 TE3 ± 21 ± 17 ± 32 ± 2

WBC: white blood cells; UD: urine density; Osmol: osmolality; HE: hot environment; TE: temperate environment. The values presented are the mean ± standard error of mean (SEM) of 26 runners. versus before race; versus before race; ; and versus temperate environment.

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